VALMET  Sk19  Vind

  The story which didn't happen ... outside Atlantic Air Combat  
  See also : AAC Data Sheet
Illustrations :
Illustrations :


By the end of the Korean War, it had became clear for Sweden that more trouble was looming up in Europe, especially with the USSR going ahead with their plans to build up a fleet of aircraft carriers.  While the Baltic is not exactly a place to safely operate a carrier, it does offer additional air capabilities to reach out at sea and protect the mainland.

But in addition to potentially offering addtional assets on their Eastern flank, Sweden saw the potential danger also coming from the North with Soviet troops coming through neighbouring Finland or even Norway.  Also, an increasingly strong and potent Soviet Navy was a clear threat to Sweden's shipping lanes in the Artic and North Seas (Norway, Scotland, Iceland) and accross the Atlantic (Canada, United States) and this developping situation questioned the size of their Navy.

The debate had been going on for some time regarding whether or not to scrap, maintain or develop their "blue water" navy (re: the three Sverige class, and the two Tre Kronor class cruisers), and Sweden eventually decided early in 1956 to strengthen their navy, and acquire aircraft carriers with the main purpose to enhance their anti-shipping capabilities in the Artic, and, to a lesser extent, provide a platform for anti-submarines aircrafts.  This decision lead to the A2 HMS Gotland and A3 HMS Lappland, the story of which is covered elsewhere in these ... fantasy Notes.


Although not identified initially, the need for a carrier capable trainer was soon realized.   With neither the rebuilt A21JN Gam, nor the J21AN Angripare being available in a trainer version some aircraft was necessary to allow a smoother conversion to naval air operations.  Sweden had the opportunity to lay their hands on a few MC309 just after the war, and these were still operational, but the Calderic were single seat fighters rather than trainers, and piston engined.

Only few aircrafts of the type had been or were produced, and none would be available second hand.   In fact nor the American T2V1 nor the T2J1 could not be made available before several years, so they were not considered any further so the Navy turned to France and sought to provide the CM175 Zephyr.  the Potez CM177, a derivative and a mix of the French CM170.2 Super Magister and the naval CM175 Zephyr was chosen to be produced under licence by Valmet in Finland.  Within the Flyvapnet, it was designated Sk19 Vind
Trainers CM175 Zephyr CM176 Zephyr II T1A SeaStar T2A Buckeye Athena.T1

Engine(s) 2 x Marboré II 2 x Marboré VI 1xJ33 1xJ34 1xDart
2 x 400 kgp 2 x 480 kgp 1 x 2450 kgp 1 x 1544 kgp 1 x 000 ehp
Armament - 2 x 7.62mm/200rpg
- 2 x 110lb
- 2 x 13.2mm/175rpg
- 2 x 1100lb
2 x 12.7mm possible
2 x 500lb
- gund pod
2 x 500lb
- =
- =

There was a secondary reason to retain the type.   As Finland could only operate a limited number of fighter aircrafts, but an unlimited number of trainers, they had acquired 80 CM170 Fouga Magister, of which the majority were built under license.  Adopting a similar aircraft would allow these ... to be passed over to Finland, should the need arise.

Well, the Swedish Navy did really acquire the Zephyr "as is", as they were looking for some improved performances, and there was no lack to possible improvements already studied by the French manufacturer.  The already stengthened CM175 airframe, could make to with stronger wings, and if France had not adopted the folding wing options, such a design was readily available, and it incorporated an input from Matra where the two 50½ gallon tip tanks could be replaced by combined fuel and rocket pod assembly, still containing 33 gallons topped with a sizeable amount of 37mm rockets.

  - -   -
1952 13 CM.170 Magister 3 prototypes and 10 pre-production aircrafts
1955 475 CM.171 Magister CM.170-1 production version with 400 kgp Turbomeca Marboré II engines
1957 188 CM.171 Magister CM.170-1 produced under licence by Heinkel-Messerschmitt in West Germany (+46 from France)
1958 62 CM.171 Magister CM.170-1 produced under licence by Valmet in Finland (+ 18 from France)
1959 36 CM.171 Tzukit CM.170-1 produced under licence by IAI in Israel (+ 14 from France)
1960 137 CM.172 Magister CM.170-2 production version with 480 kgp Turbomeca Marboré VI engines
1956 2 CM.170M Esquif CM.170-1 based prototype for the French Aéronavale
1956 1 CM.171 Makalu CM.170-1 based prototype powered by 1100 kgp Turbomeca Gabizo engines
- 1 CM.173 Super Magister CM.170-2 based prototype with ejection seats
1959 28 CM.175 Zéphyr CM.170-1 based production naval version with 400 kgp Turbomeca Marboré II engines
- 0 CM.176   CM.170-2 based study for a ground attack variant
1961   CM.177 Vind CM.170-3 based production naval version for Sweden by Valmet (Finland) with 522 kgp Teledyne J69T27 engines
1962 2 CM.191   CM.170-2 based prototype of a 4-seat version of the Magister (by Potez-Heinkel)

The CM.177 Vind/Magistral

The CM177 Vind  differed slightly from its predecessor.   At first glance, it looked like a standard CM170 Magister, thus retaining the standard canopy arrangement, but equipped with the stronger and higher (15cm) landing gear of the CM175 Zephyr, and with Martin Baker Mk4 ejection seats.  While the sliding canopy of the CM175 did make sense, the standard one was nevertheless retained to speed up production with Valmet.   The CM177 was different enough in many aspects without having to manufacture a completely different canopy arrangement - a concession of the Swedes to their friendly neighbour.   Naturally the Vind  was thorouhgly protected against the corrosive marine environment. but differences were deeper.

While Potez had only gone half way in marinizing their original design into the CM175 Zephyr but maintaining the same wing, the CM177 enjoyed folding wings, allowing the aircraft not only to land and take off from the new carriers but also to fully operate from them even if the folding system was a simple manually operated one.   While only lightly armed, its compatibility with the carriers elevators made it part, at least potentially, of the carrier air wing rather than a passing visitor.


The Swedish variant was first planned to be powered by a pair of the stronger Marboré VI engines, offering a welcome 20% thrust increase, and had it not be manufactured in Finland, that's what the CM177 would have ended up with as the French manufacturer were adamant to power their aircraft with French manufactured engines.  But the adjunction of the airframes intended for Sweden to the Finnish production line was an opportunity to bypass this hurdle and adopt the US manufacured J69T27, which Teledyne had further developped to produce 1150 lbf

Fuel Capacity

The Magister was essentially producted with two different wing tip tanks of 125 and 230 litres capacity, the latter being standard to the CM.170-2 variant.   Then the French Navy aircrafts were equipped with a pair of slightly smaller tanks of 122 litres.  For their own use, Sweden adopted the largest type of tip tanks.  These could not be jestitioned in flight, but could either be removed or replaced by combined fuel tanks (150 litres/33 gal) and 37mm rocket launchers containing 36 of these small rockets.

Internal & External Guns

The standard Magister weapon was a pair of 7.50 or 7.62 MAC AA52 machine guns, associated with ammunition boxes holding 200 rounds each.   The Swedes had these replaced by pair of AKAN-44 13.2mm, with 150 rounds per gun.  A tight fit with deeper ammunition cases being intalled lower in the nose.   With the AKAN guns being significantly longer than the MAC ones, the barrels were ungainly protruding from the nose.   While a slightly heavier installation, the weight shift was partly balanced by the arresting gear installation, itself a different design compared to the French original.  Anyway, ammunition standardization was a concept the Navy had insisted on.

- - Pylon - - Nose - - Pylon - -
Combat 1×13.2mm
(250 rpg)
(150 rpg)
(250 rpg)
Training 2×7.62mm
(500 rpg)
-     - 2×7.62mm
(500 rpg)

External Weapons

The CM177 armament was similar even if superior to its predecessor, thanks some wings reinforcement and significantly more powerful engines, with the two wing pylons offering provision for a 264lb bomb each (instead of 110 lb), or rocket launchers (either 18×37mm, 36×37mm or 6×70mm).  The number of HVAR rockets remained the same, and four French T10 HVAR rockets under the wings would be a rather standard outfit.  These launchers however were modified to carry conventional release weapons, typically 25lb exercise bombs but WWII vintage 25lb and 50lb general purpose bombs could also be hung there.

Bombs Wing Tip Pylon Rail Rail Rail Rail Pylon Wing Tip Total
25lb 36×37mm M41/M33 M41/M33 M41/M33 (Guns) M41/M33 M41/M33 M41/M33 36×37mm 6×  25lb 
50lb 36×37mm 50GP 50GP 50GP (Guns) 50GP 50GP 50GP 36×37mm 6×  50lb 
100lb 36×37mm M30/M38 - - (Guns) - - M30/M38 36×37mm 2×100lb 
250lb 36×37mm M57 - - (Guns) - - M57 36×37mm 2×250lb 
SUU2037A 36×37mm M41/M33
M41/M33 M41/M33 (Guns) M41/M33 M41/M33 M41/M33
36×37mm 12×  25lb 
SUU2037C 36×37mm M50GP
50GP 50GP (Guns) 50GP 50GP M50GP
36×37mm 8×  50lb 
SUU2037B 36×37mm M30/M38
- - (Guns) - - M30/M38
36×37mm 2×100lb 

The stronger underwing pylons also offered the CM177 a wider range of options, either heavier HVAR rockets (Bofors 135mm or the Swiss WG27B), a variety of 250lb class bombs and in particular a pair of training weapons dispensers, themselves releasing 12×37mm FFAR rockets and either 4×25lb, 2×50lb or 1×110lb bombs, a real weapon multiplier.

FFAR Rockets

While the CM177 could handle a pair of 6×70mm launchers, the Vind  centered around the use of the French 37mm rocket, especially with the adoption of a wing tips setup combining fuel and a pack of these folding fin aerial rockets, sort of a mariage between the original fuel tank and the Matra MT361 launcher.  These could be replaced by standard 230 litres fuel tanks but were essentially part of the aircraft standard outfit.

The French had abandoned the type to rely on the heavier 68mm type, but like the Irish Air Corp, the Swedish Navy thought the smaller type was enough for training purposes.  In less peaceful circumstances, the 37mm rocket may lack the impressive punch of the larger American type or its French equivalent, but the CM177 was a clear example where quality had been traded for quantity :

FFAR Wing Tip Pylon Rail Rail Rail Rail Pylon Wing Tip Total
37mm 36×37mm 36×37mm 1×T10 1×T10 (Guns) 1×T10 1×T10 36×37mm 36×37mm 144×37mm
37mm 36×37mm 18×37mm 1×T10 1×T10 (Guns) 1×T10 1×T10 18×37mm 36×37mm 108×37mm
SUU2037 36×37mm 12×37mm 1×T10 1×T10 (Guns) 1×T10 1×T10 12×37mm 36×37mm 96×37mm
70mm 36×37mm 6×70mm 1×T10 1×T10 (Guns) 1×T10 1×T10 6×70mm 36×37mm 12×70mm
TRAINER AIRCRAFT Details CM171 (real) CM172 (real) CM173        CM175 (real) CM177 (fake)
Ejection seats -          
Engine : Marbore II or VI - Marb.II 882.lbf Marb.VI 1058.lbf Marb.VI 1058.lbf Marb.II 882.lbf J69T27 1150.lbf
Empty *: no tip tanks 5042.lb 4468.lb 5081.lb 4507.lb 5732.lb 5323.lb 5600.lb 5600.lb / *5550.lb
Crew=2 (200 lb@) - Crew=2 400.lb Crew=2 400.lb Crew=2 400.lb Crew=2 400.lb Crew=2 400.lb
Guns - 2×AA52 44.lb 2×AA52 44.lb 2×AA52 44.lb 2×AA52 44.lb 2×AK44 110.lb
Ammos (7.50×54mm) - 2×200 30.lb 2×200 30.lb 2×200 30.lb 2×140 21.lb 2×150 78.lb
Fuel Main (730 or 710 litres) - 160.gal 1216.lb 160.gal 1216.lb 257.gal 1953.lb 156.gal 1186.lb 160.gal 1216.lb
Fuel Tips (2×125 or 230 litres) *: fuel+tanks 55.gal 418.lb 101.gal 768.lb 101.gal 768.lb 55.gal 418.lb 101.gal *967.lb
JL-337* 2×33gal & FFAR 2×[36×37mm] - - - - - - - - 66.gal *876.lb
Weight: gross when Crew=2 - 6576.lb - 6965.lb - 8518.lb - 7665.lb - 8321.lb
Weight: gross when Crew=1 - 6376.lb - 6765.lb - 8318.lb - 7465.lb - 8030.lb
Weapons load when when Crew=2 - 483.lb - 641lb - 500.lb - 56.lb - 477.lb
 Pylons 110lb@ / 264lb@ when Crew=1 - 683.lb - 841lb - 700.lb - 256.lb - 768.lb
 HVAR T-10 100mm 60.lb@ 120.lb 60.lb@ 120.lb 60.lb@ 120.lb 60.lb@ 120.lb 60.lb@ 120.lb
 HVAR RR1 135mm / / / / / / / / 140.lb@ 280.lb
 HVAR WG27B 272mm / / / / / / / / 245.lb@ 490.lb
 Missile SS-11 Anti-tank 66.lb@ 132.lb 66.lb@ 132.lb 66.lb@ 132.lb 66.lb@ 132.lb 66.lb@ 132.lb
 Bombs BAT120 armor piercing 75.lb@ 150.lb 75.lb@ 150.lb 75.lb@ 150.lb 75.lb@ 150.lb 75.lb@ 150.lb
 Bombs M41 - 25.lb@ 50.lb 25.lb@ 50.lb 25.lb@ 50.lb 25.lb@ 50.lb 25.lb@ 50.lb
 Bombs M33 training 25.lb@ 50.lb 25.lb@ 50.lb 25.lb@ 50.lb 25.lb@ 50.lb 25.lb@ 50.lb
 Bombs 50GP - 50.lb@ 100.lb 50.lb@ 100.lb 50.lb@ 100.lb 50.lb@ 100.lb 50.lb@ 100.lb
 Bombs M30 - 110.lb@ 220.lb 110.lb@ 220.lb 110.lb@ 220.lb 110.lb@ 220.lb 110.lb@ 220.lb
 Bombs M38 training 110.lb@ 220.lb 110.lb@ 220.lb 110.lb@ 220.lb 110.lb@ 220.lb 110.lb@ 220.lb
 Bombs M57 - / / / / / / / / 250.lb@ 500.lb
 Bombs BLU10B napalm / / / / / / / / 250.lb@ 500.lb
 Bombs SW120 - / / / / / / / / 264.lb@ 528.lb
 FFAR MT181 2×[18×37mm] 82.lb@ 164.lb 82.lb@ 164.lb 82.lb@ 164.lb 82.lb@ 164.lb 82.lb@ 164.lb
 FFAR MT361 2×[36×37mm] / / / / / / / / 147.lb@ 294.lb
 FFAR MT-F1 2×[  6×68mm] 128.lb@ 256.lb 128.lb@ 256.lb 128.lb@ 256.lb 128.lb@ 256.lb 128.lb@ 256.lb
 FFAR LAU32 2×[  6×70mm] / / / / / / / / 250.lb@ 500.lb
 Disp. SUU-37 2×[12×37mm] / / / / / / / / 242.lb@ 484.lb
 Guns 2×7.62mm 2×[500 rpg] / / / / / / / / 238.lb@ 476.lb
 Guns 1×13.2mm 2×[250 rpg] / / / / / / / / 240.lb@ 480.lb
 Rails 60.lb@ - - - - - - - - - - -
 HVAR 4×T-10 100mm 60.lb@ 240.lb 60.lb@ 240.lb 60.lb@ 240.lb 60.lb@ 240.lb 60.lb@ 240.lb
 Bombs M41 - / / / / / / / / 25.lb@ 100.lb
 Bombs M33 training / / / / / / / / 25.lb@ 100.lb
 Bombs 50GP - / / / / / / / / 50.lb@ 200.lb
MTOW - - 7059.lb - 7606.lb - 9018.lb - 7721.lb - 8798.lb

Engines: 2 x Turbomeca Marbore IIA, 400 kg / 880 lb thrust.
Wing span: 39 ft 9 in ft (12.1 m)
Overall length: 33 ft (10 m)
Height: 9 ft 2 in ( 2.8 m)
Wing area: 186.1 sq.ft (17.3 sq.m).
Wing aspect ratio: 7.42.
Empty wt: 4740 lb (2151 kg).
Normal T/O wt: 6280 lb (2851 kg).
MTOW: 7055 lb (3202 kg).
Internal fuel cap: 160 Imp.Gal. (727 lt).
External fuel cap: 55 Imp.Gal. (250 lt).
Wing loading: 33.7 lb/sq.ft (164 kg/sq.m).
Pwr loading: 3.6 lb/lbst (3.6 kg/kgst).
Max speed: 432 mph (695 kph).
Initial ROC: 3350 fpm (17 m/sec).
TO dist 50 ft: 2600 ft (793 m).
Range: 575 sm (925 km).
Operating ceiling: 33,000 ft.
Service ceiling: 11000 m / 36100 ft
Seats: 2
Magister II
Engines: 2 x Turbomeca Marbore VI, 1150 lb thrust. Fouga 90
Engine: 2 x Turbomeca Astafan IIG turbofan, 1,520 lb
Wing span: 39ft 6 in (12.04 m)  
Max speed: 398 mph (640 km/h) 
 Maximum payload is given as 833 lbs / 377 kg (no second pilot), or 641 lbs / 291 kg (two pilots)
CM170 (Fouga)
weight 7100lbs
Pressurized, air conditioned and oxygen
Boosted ailerons Performance specifications:
Power: 2/880lbs of thrust MarboreII /1056lbs for MarboreVI
Rate of climb: 3100ft/mn
Max level flight speed: 340kts
Cruise speed: 250 to 320kts
Loop entry: 280kts
Best climb: 180kts or M0.42
Final approch speed: 110kts
Stall speed: 85kts




LIGHT ATTACK AIRCRAFT Details CM170-1   CM170-2   CM173   CM175   CM177  
Crew=2 (200 lb@) - Crew=2 400.lb Crew=2 400.lb Crew=2 400.lb Crew=2 400.lb Crew=2 400.lb


TRAINER AIRCRAFT Details CM170-1   CM170-2   CM173   CM175   CM177  
Crew=2 (200 lb@) - Crew=2 400.lb Crew=2 400.lb Crew=2 400.lb Crew=2 400.lb Crew=2 400.lb
Fuel Tips (2×125 or 230 litres) *: fuel+tank 55.gal       101.gal       101.gal       55.gal       101.gal *967.lb
Fuel total (980 or 1190 litres) - 215.gal 1634.lb 261.gal 1984.lb 358.gal 2721.lb 211.gal 1604.gal 261.gal 1983.lb
Weight: gross - - 6576.lb - 6965.lb 8488.lb 8518.lb - 7669.lb - 8057.lb
Weapon: Crew=2 - - 483.lb - 641lb - 500.lb - 0.lb - -