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. 2017-08-17

  Notes  

 
     
     
 

GRUMMAN  J2F-6  Duck

 
     
  The story which didn't happen ... outside Atlantic Air Combat  
     
     
  See also : AAC Data Sheet
 
Illustrations :
 
 
Sources: http://www.aviation-history.com/grumman/j2f.html
 
     
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Introduction
   
The J2F Duck is one among very few aircrafts which does it all : as an amphibian it thus lands on water or terra firma, but as it's also equipped with a tail hook, it thus as much at ease on an aircraft carrier.   It might seem odd to have biplane amphibians operational in the mid-1960s, but not as much as it sounds...   The Argentinian Navy, the only main user outside the US only rellinquished theirs in 1959, with Peru being the last know official user.   So, keeping these available as "prize" aircraft with the Argentinian Navy seems fun enough
  
Country = QTY Aircraft Name 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967
  SAR 27 J1F1 Duck 19334                              
  SAR 14 J1F2 Duck 1935                              
  SAR 5 J1F3 Duck 1935                              
  SAR 29 J2F1 Duck 1936                              
  SAR 37 J222 Duck 1938                              
  SAR 30 J2F2A Duck 1938                              
  SAR 20 J2F3 Duck 1939                              
  SAR 36 J2F4 Duck 1939                              
  SAR 144 J2F5 Duck 1941                              
  SAR 330 J2F6 Duck 1942                              
Argentina SAR 8 J1F1 Duck 1937 1947                            
Argentina SAR 4 J2F4 Duck 1939 1959 >> >> >> 1959                    
Argentina SAR 1 J2F4 Duck 1946 1959 >> >> >> 1959                    
Argentina SAR 24 J2F5 Duck 1946 1959 >> >> >> 1959    
Argentina SAR 7 J2F6 Duck 1946 1959 >> >> >> 1959    
Columbia SAR 3 J2F6 Duck 1948 1958 >> >> 1958                      
Mexico SAR 5 J2F6 Duck 1950 1961 >> >> >> >> >> 1961                
Paraguay SAR 1 J2F5 Duck 1950 1962 >> >> >> >> >> >> 1962              
Peru SAR 1 J2F5 Duck 1961 1964           1961 >> >> 1964          
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Aircraft Variants
   
The differences between the various models of the JF/J2F are minimal, but for the evolving engine power available

  JF1 JF2 JF3 J2F1 J2F2 J2F2A J2F3 J2F4 J2F5 J2F6 J2F6
Production 27 14 5 29     20   144 330 330
  1934 1935 1935 1936     1939 1939 1940 1944 1944
Operator USN USCG USN USN USN USN USN/VIP USN USN USN USN
Wingspan 39'00" 39'00" 39'00" 39'00" 39'00" 39'00" 39'00" 39'00" 39'00" 39'00" 39'00"
Length 34'00" 34'00" 34'00" 34'00" 34'00" 34'00" 34'00" 34'00" 34'00" 34'00" 34'00"
Height 14'06" 14'06" 14'06" 14'06" 14'06" 14'06" 14'06" 14'06" 14'06" 14'06" 14'06"
Wing Area 409.ft² 409.ft² 409.ft² 409.ft² 409.ft² 409.ft² 409.ft² 409.ft² 409.ft² 409.ft² 409.ft²
Crew 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Passengers 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Engine:type PW1830.62 WR1820 WR1820 WR1820 WR1820 WR1820 WR1820 WR1820   WR1820.54 WR1820.54
Engine:power 700.hp ±700.hp ±700.hp 750.hp 790.hp 790.hp 790.hp 790.hp 950.hp 1050.hp 1050.hp
Engine:SFC   0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43
Speed:max 165.kn 165.kn 165.kn 165.kn 165.kn 165.kn 165.kn 165.kn 165.kn 165.kn 165.kn
Speed:cruise 135.kn 135.kn 135.kn 135.kn 135.kn 135.kn 135.kn 135.kn 135.kn 135.kn 135.kn
Speed:land                      
Speed:stall                      
Ceiling 25750.ft 25750.ft 25750.ft 25750.ft 25750.ft 25750.ft 25750.ft 25750.ft 25750.ft 25750.ft 25750.ft
Range 1300.nm 1300.nm 1300.nm 1300.nm 1300.nm 1300.nm 1300.nm 1300.nm 1300.nm 1300.nm 1300.nm
Tail hook YES no no YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES
Gun:gunner 1×30cal 1×30cal 1×30cal 1×30cal 1×30cal 2×30cal 1×30cal 1×30cal 1×30cal 1×30cal 1×30cal
Gun:cowl // // // // // 1×30cal // // // // //
Weight:empty 5480.lb 5480.lb 5480.lb 5480.lb 5480.lb 5480.lb 5480.lb 5480.lb 5480.lb 5480.lb 5480.lb
Bomb rack 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 4 ? 4 ? 4
Bomb load 2×100.lb 2×100.lb 2×100.lb 2×100.lb 2×250.lb 4×100.lb 2×250.lb 2×250.lb heavier 650.lb 650.lb
HVAR Rockets                      
Weight:MTOW 7325.lb 7325.lb 7325.lb 7325.lb 7325.lb 7325.lb 7325.lb 7325.lb 7325.lb 7325.lb 7325.lb
                       
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Aircraft Variants - Real and Fictional
   
The J2F Duck is one among very few aircrafts which does it all : as an amphibian it thus lands on water or terra firma, but as it's also equipped with a tail hook, it thus as much at ease on an aircraft carrier.   It might sound a bit excessive to make it an operational aircraft in the mid-1960s but not as much as it sounds.....
   
Text

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The JF/J2F "Duck" was one of those military workhorses moving around in the background before and during WWII which did a tremendous job but never got the publicity of its' more glamorous teammates. Some said the Duck could be more aptly named the "Ugly Duckling". Be that as it may; when no other bomber could be found, it carried bombs; when no other transport could be found, it transported; when no other photo plane could be found, it photographed and when no other rescuer could be found, it rescued. When it came to "Utility Craft", the JF/J2F was the definitive.

The Duck originated with designs and production aircraft made by Loening Aeronautical Engineering Corporation. When Loening was taken over by Curtiss-Wright in 1929, several key employees of the former Loening Aeronautical (among them; Leroy Grumman) formed the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation which was financed by Grover Loening. In 1928, even before Curtiss-Wright took over Grover Loening Aeronautical Engineering, Loening formed the Grover Loening Aircraft Company. In 1931, Grover Loening Aircraft submitted their XO2L-1 design to the U.S. Navy for its new "Utility" category. The Navy was intrigued with the design, but as Loening had no production facilities, he was directed to Grumman. Grumman accepted the craft as "Design 7". After modifications to make it more easily produced, Grumman submitted the specifications to the Navy in 1932 and the Navy accepted it as the XJF-1.

A glance at the Loening "Air Yacht" (produced during the 1920s) reveals a somewhat more than casual resemblance to the Duck and the Navy had been aware of the craft since its inception. This and the fact Loening had a sterling reputation as a designer, made acceptance a foregone conclusion.

On Tuesday, April 25, 1933, the XJF-1 flew for the first time. Pilot Paul Hovgaard, took off from a grass strip in front of the Grumman factory at Farmingdale, NY.

The Duck was classified as a "single bay" bi-winger, meaning there was only a single set of struts outboard of the fuselage and a single set of bracing wires between the upper and lower wings on each side. Power for the XJF-1 and the JF-1 came from a 700 hp (522 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1830-62 "Twin Wasp" engine and a three-blade Hamilton Standard prop. To keep it afloat, a single large float was mounted under the centerline of the craft. Faired flush into the sides of the main float was the main landing gear which could be raised and lowered by a system of motors, sprockets, chains and gears. A small outrigger float was mounted near the tip of each wing. The crew consisted of a pilot and rear gunner under the telescoping canopy. There were also provisions for two passengers located just aft of the lower wing in the main float

Grumman delivered the XJF-1 to the NAS Anacostia on May 4, 1933 for testing and evaluation. The only modification recommended was a very minor change in the shape of the tail surfaces. The originals were triangular in shape and the Navy felt horizontal and vertical control could be improved by adding more area to the surfaces. Grumman changed the rudder and elevators to a more rectangular shape and redelivered the XJF-1 to the Navy in early 1934 where it was again accepted for evaluation. It was sent immediately to the Naval Test Unit at NAS Norfolk, VA. This aircraft (Serial Number 9218) crashed in the James river near Norfolk, VA on March 8, 1934 while being tested by the Navy. The cause was thought to have been pilot error.

Shortly after, the Navy ordered 27 JF-1s and the first Ducks were delivered beginning in May, 1934 to Norfolk NAS. These had provisions for mounting a machine gun at the rear seat facing aft. In addition, a single bomb rack was mounted under each wing, capable of carrying a 100 lb (45.4 kg) bomb or depth charge on each. The JF-1 had the same Pratt & Whitney R-1830-62 engine as the prototype. The main float was also a Grumman design (Grumman Model "A") and like the prototype, it included retractable main landing gear, making the Duck a true amphibian. In addition to being able to operate from land or water, the JF-1 came complete with a tail-hook for operation from a carrier deck. The JF-1 Duck was an extremely rugged aircraft (as were all Ducks). For example, on December 7, 1937, Marine Sergeant Bernard Belcher flipped his aircraft completely upside down while trying to land in a cross-wind (a particularly hazardous undertaking in a Duck). And, though the JF-1 dug its nose into the ground and somersaulted, the only damage sustained was a few wrinkles in the top of the rudder and fin. Sergeant Belcher was uninjured.

Though the JF-2 looked very similar to the JF-1, there were subtle differences, the most obvious being the installation of a loop radio direction finding antenna to the rear of the canopy. This antenna was removed whenever the Browning .30 caliber machine gun was mounted so as not to interfere with the field of fire. A somewhat less noticeable difference was the change to a Wright 1820 "Cyclone" engine which resulted in a much narrower chord for the engine cowling. Horsepower was the same as the Pratt-Whitney, and the reason for the change is somewhat obscure. In all probability the Wright engine was more readily available at the time. The Duck set a world speed record for single engine amphibians on Wednesday, December 4, 1935 when a JF-2 (Serial #0266) was flown near Quantico, VA at a speed of 191 mph (307.39 kph). A total of 14 JF-2s were built. The JF-2 Duck was built exclusively for the Coast Guard, and thus the tail hook of the JF-1 was deleted. Most of the JF-2s were later transferred to the Navy and Marines.

The JF-3 had provisions for both the direction finder loop antenna and the Browning machine gun by simply mounting the antenna under the canopy between the pilot and rear gunner/observer. As with the JF-2, the tail hook was omitted in the JF-3 Duck, as it was built for the Navy and Marine Corps Reserve units. Only 5 JF-3s were built The JF-3 Duck was the last of the JF series with production ending in October 1935.

The J2F series was first ordered in March 1936. The J2F-1 Duck first flew on Friday, April 3, 1936 and was delivered to the Navy that same afternoon. And although it was still the basic JF Duck, many improvements were incorporated into the new Grumman Design #15, starting with a new 750 hp (559 kW) Wright 1820 Cyclone. It was decided to make this "Utility" craft even more so. The tail hook was installed again, along with provisions for a heavier bomb load and a stretcher in the lower passenger compartment to carry wounded. It was also fitted with smoke laying and target towing gear. It could be used for a photo or reconnaissance missions as well as it’s normal function as a small transport. The main float was extended forward 12 inches. A total of 29 J2F-1s were built by April 1937 to complete the production run.

The J2F-2 again had its Wright 1820 Cyclone boosted in horsepower, this time to 790 hp (589 kW). A new feature for the Duck was a .30 caliber Browning firing from between the cylinders of the Cyclone. A variant (the J2F-2A) had twin .30 caliber Brownings in the rear gunners position along with an extra pair of bomb racks.

Twenty J2F-3s were built in 1939 for use by the Navy Brass. These were the "Cadillac" of Ducks with plush interiors and Navy blue with silver paint jobs. They were otherwise standard J2F-2s.

In the late summer of 1939, the J2F-4 appeared. It was basically a J2F-2 except for minor modifications. The Navy simply needed more patrol type aircraft.

July of 1941 saw the most abundant and also the last of the Grumman built Ducks, the J2F-5. Power of the Wright 1820 Cyclone had by this time been raised to 950 hp (708 kW). Since the oil coolers had been repositioned to the engine compartment, the Duck returned to the broad chord engine cowling of the Pratt-Whitney. Other small modifications were made to increase bomb load and to facilitate easier loading of the craft. A hundred forty-four J2F-5s were built

When the last J2F-5 rolled off the assembly line, Grumman went to work on other more important aircraft which were desperately needed in the first months following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. The J2F Duck project was shifted to the Columbia Aircraft Corporation who built the J2F-6 at their Valley Stream, Long Island factory from early 1942 to the end of WWII. The J2F-6 was identical to the -5 except for the Wright 1820 Cyclone which was again reworked to deliver 1,050 hp (783 kW), the most powerful Duck built and the most numerous, with 330 being built for the Navy and Coast Guard.

The AO-12 was an Air Force Duck used as an Air/Sea Rescue craft. All were drawn from surplus Navy, Marine and Coast Guard J2F-5s and -6s, rebuilt and modified for Air Force operations. The basic Duck airframe remained exactly the same.

A number of Ducks were produced for South American countries. They bore the model numbers of G-15 through G-20. All were identical to JF/J2F models.

A total of 632 JF/J2F Ducks were built in all. By 1945 they were scattered all over the world, performing duties nothing short of amazing. Ducks could be seen airborne as late as the mid 1950s. There may be one or two still flying today. Probably the most famous Duck of all was J2F-6 Serial Number 33587 which starred in the movie "Murphy’s War" in the mid 1970s.

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  JF1 JF2 JF3 J2F1 J2F2 J2F2A J2F3 J2F4 J2F5 J2F6
Production 27 14 5 29     20   144 330
  1934 1935 1935 1936     1939 1939 1940 1944
Operator USN USCG USN USN USN USN USN/VIP USN USN USN
Wingspan 39'00" 39'00" 39'00" 39'00" 39'00" 39'00" 39'00" 39'00" 39'00" 39'00"
Length 34'00" 34'00" 34'00" 34'00" 34'00" 34'00" 34'00" 34'00" 34'00" 34'00"
Height 14'06" 14'06" 14'06" 14'06" 14'06" 14'06" 14'06" 14'06" 14'06" 14'06"
Wing Area 409.ft² 409.ft² 409.ft² 409.ft² 409.ft² 409.ft² 409.ft² 409.ft² 409.ft² 409.ft²
Crew 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Passengers 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Engine:type PW1830.62 WR1820 WR1820 WR1820 WR1820 WR1820 WR1820 WR1820   WR1820.54
Engine:power 700.hp ±700.hp ±700.hp 750.hp 790.hp 790.hp 790.hp 790.hp 950.hp 1050.hp
Engine:SFC   0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43
Speed:max 165.kn 165.kn 165.kn 165.kn 165.kn 165.kn 165.kn 165.kn 165.kn 165.kn
Speed:cruise 135.kn 135.kn 135.kn 135.kn 135.kn 135.kn 135.kn 135.kn 135.kn 135.kn
Speed:land                    
Speed:stall                    
Ceiling 25750.ft 25750.ft 25750.ft 25750.ft 25750.ft 25750.ft 25750.ft 25750.ft 25750.ft 25750.ft
Range 1300.nm 1300.nm 1300.nm 1300.nm 1300.nm 1300.nm 1300.nm 1300.nm 1300.nm 1300.nm
Weight:empty 5480.lb 5480.lb 5480.lb 5480.lb 5480.lb 5480.lb 5480.lb 5480.lb 5480.lb 5480.lb
Weight:MTOW 7325.lb 7325.lb 7325.lb 7325.lb 7325.lb 7325.lb 7325.lb 7325.lb 7325.lb 7325.lb
Tail hook YES no no YES YES YES YES YES YES YES
Gun:gunner 1×30cal 1×30cal 1×30cal 1×30cal 1×30cal 2×30cal 1×30cal 1×30cal 1×30cal 1×30cal
Gun:cowl // // // // // 1×30cal // // // //
Bomb rack 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4
Bomb load 2×100.lg 2×100.lg 2×100.lg 2×250.lg 2×250.lg       heavier 650.lb
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Fighters
P-40E 281 rounds per gun
P-51B&C 280 outboard 350 inboard guns
P-51D 400 inboard and 270 middle and outboard guns
P-47D 260 to 425

F6F-3 400 RPG
F4U 390 RPG

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