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2018-03-23

RADARS  IN  ATLANTIC  AIR  COMBAT™

RADARS AS WEAPONS RADARS AS SENSORS BACKGROUND

A-Radars

LAA-Radars

SAA-Radars

@ Aircrafts

Radars on Land and at Sea

@ Carriers

Index to Background Notes


 
RADARS ON LAND AND AT SEA
 

INTRODUCTION - The notion of radar in Atlantic Air Combat™

In Atlantic Air Combat™, the notion of radar is used for what radars stand for : a tool to detect objects.  With AAC essentially being an arcade flight simulation game, radars other than air search are of little interest.  This page addresses the "radars" others than those on board combat aircrafts, either located ashore, afloat or aloft.

FUNCTIONS

In AAC, there are four radars falling into this category, which performs or are associated with the following functions
Flight Director
ATC Air Traffic Control While the "Flight Director" function is mentioned below associated with different radar types, "Flight Director" and "ATC" may be seen as synonyms as it's all about issuing directions to/receiving information from players according to circumstances
Air Search
SCH Search Very basic for a radar - might not be mentioned as such in other tables
Early Warning
SCH Search De facto a search function (long range) - will be referred to in other tables
Aircrafts radars
MAP Mapping - picks up (mapped) terrain contour
SCH Search - picks up air and surface targets either ashore or afloat, friend or foe
- provides location for (un)indentifed targets (air/sea/ground)
FCL Fire Control - directs radar-directed weapons toward targets (air/sea/ground)
Land air search radars
SCH Search - picks up air targets either friend or foe
GCA Control Tower - Flight Director around airports/air bases, prior take-off and landing
GCI Mobile Radar - same as Control Tower (in the absence thereof) when located at airstrip
- Flight Director when located on battlefield (through RT)
- Search : local local early warning when located on battlefield
ATC Air Traffic Control - Flight Director away from air bases/airports (medium range)
   - direct player to destination/target through RT
   - responds to player's queries through RT
SEW Early Warning
(Surface)
- Search : long range air surveillance
- Flight Director : away from air bases/airports (long range)
   - direct player to destination/target through RT (same as ATC)
   - responds to player's queries through RT (same as ATC)
FCL Fire Control - directs associated AA gun fire or SAMs toward their target(s)
STS Space Track - Flight Director away from launch in space or near-space flights
- NB: the function is there irrelevant of any range limitation
Ship air search radars
- The same as land-based radar, including GCI Mobile Radar
Early Warning
(Airborne)
AEW Early Warning - Search : mobile range air surveillance
- Flight Director : away from air bases/airports (long range)
   - direct player to destination/target through RT (same as ATC)
   - responds to player's queries through RT (same as ATC)

LOCATIONS

  LOCATION         POSSIBLE FUNCTIONS
  Sites   Sub-Location Fire Control - - - - - - - - SCH GCA ATC EW STS FCL
___ - Site Airport Control tower - - - - - - - - - - - -
AFB - Site AirBase Control tower - - - - - - - - - - - -
ATC - Site R-Base Building/Antenna - - - - - - - - - - - -
SEW - Site R-Base Building/Antenna - - - - - - - - - - -
GUN - Site AAA-Base Building/Antenna yes - - - - - - - - - - - -
SAM - Site SAM-Base Building/Antenna yes - - - - - - - - - - - -
  Vehicles   Sub-Location Fire Control - - - - - - - - SCH GCA ATC EW STS FCL
GCI - Van Land Van/Truck - - - - - - - - - - -
MFC - Van Land Van/Truck yes - - - - - - - - - - - -
___ - Ship Sea Naval ships possible - - - - - - - - -
AEW - Air Aircraft - - - - - - - - - - -

RADAR TYPES & APPLICATION

          NAVAL APPLICATOINS  FCL  FUNCTIONS
  Radar ID Main Functions - MC A0 SS DE DD CC BB CV Gun SAM GCA ATC EW AEW
1 ___ AN/SPN-2 SCH/GCA Shorter range - - - - - - - -
2 ___ AN/SPN-4 SCH/ATC/FCL Medium range - - - - - -
3 ___ AN/SPN-6 SCH/ATC/EW Longer range - - - - - - - - - - -
4 ___ AN/APS20 SCH/ATC/EW Mobile range - - - - - - - - - - - -
  Sites Radars Main Functions Weapons ?... - - - - - - - - Gun SAM GCA ATC EW AEW
Airports AN/SPN-2 Control Tower no - - - - - - - - - - - - -
AFB - Site AN/SPN-2 Control tower no - - - - - - - - - - - - -
ATC - Site AN/SPN-4 Flight Director no - - - - - - - - - - - - -
GUN - Site AN/SPN-4 Fire Control AAA Guns - - - - - - - - - - - -
SAM - Site AN/SPN-4 Fire Control SAM+Guns - - - - - - - - - - - -
SEW - Site AN/SPN-6 EW + Space Track no - - - - - - - - - - - -
  Vehicles Radars Main Functions Weapons ?... - - - - - - - - Gun SAM GCA ATC EW AEW
GCI - Van AN/SPN-2 Mobile Flight Director no - - - - - - - - - - - -
MFC - Van AN/SPN-4 Mobile Fire Control Guns/SAM - - - - - - - - () () - - - -
- Ships Radars Main Functions Weapons ?... MC A0 SS DE DD CC BB CV Gun SAM GCA ATC EW AEW
MC n/a Merchant ships - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
AO AN/SPN-2 Naval re-supply ships AAA Guns - - - - - - - - - - - -
SS AN/SPN-2 Submarines (AAA Guns) - - - - - - - - - - - -
DE AN/SPN-2 Corvettes AAA Guns - - - - - - - - - - - -
DD(G) AN/SPN-4 Destroyers Guns (+SAM) - - - - - - - - () - - - -
CC(G) AN/SPN-4 Cruisers Guns (+SAM) - - - - - - - - () - - - -
BB AN/SPN-4 Battleships AAA Guns - - - - - - - - - - - -
CV AN/SPN-2
AN/SPN-4
AN/SPN-6
Aircraft carriers
Helicopter carriers
Control Tower
Guns (+SAM)
Air Surveillance
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  Aircraft Radar Main Functions - - - - - - - - - Gun SAM GCA ATC EW AEW
AEW - AN/APS20 Early Warning/ATC - - - - - - - - - - - - -

AAC RADARS - BASICS

In Atlantic Air Combat™ the relation between detection range and altitude for surface based radars is stricly linear : the further aloft the target, the earlier it will be detected by surrounding radars.

Basic values are in feet for altitude and yards for range and there is a minimum altitude coverage under which it is possible to fly undetected.  The "undetected altitude is set at 200 ft.  However, this "undetected" altitude only applies to player, not to AI directed aircrafts which do not enjoy this relative protection, meaning that friendly shipborne, airborne or shorebased radars will pick them up and direct players toward intruders.

As mentioned, distances which are normally expressed in nautical miles in AAC are here specifically expressed in yards, with any other value being a conversion of the basic data in yards.  The following tools were used with the result in the below table being rounded :
yards to nautical mile nautical mile to yard yard to mile mile to yard Yard to kilometre kilometre to yard

AAC RADARS - TARGETS SIZES

Atlantic Air Combat™ does not really play with the notion of RCS (radar cross section), even if some background notes have been assembled.  However each aircraft will be donned with a mock RCS value as being one characteristic among others.  Essentially, there will be two :
BB Bomber sized aircrafts reference value used in the detection AAC Radars Detecton Ranges Refernece Table below 100%
FF Fighter sized aircrafts a ratio of the above will be adopted for smaller aircrafts ××%

When a small bomber or transport aircraft is at stake (eg: C-45H), it woud receive the "FF" RCS value, and vice-versa, a very large fighter (eg: Tu128) would be donned with a "BB" 100% RCS value.  There will  be exceptions, but the AAC/RCS value is not going to vary from one aircraft to the other according to some ad hoc system.

The case of the "low observable" aircraft

There weren't many of the kind the 1960s but the odd light liaison aicraft will be associated with a lower RCS value.  Then, a few outstanding designs may also receive a lower "AAC/RCS" if they were based on :
BB XB-70A Valkyrie as it did enjoy a much smaller RCS than the B-52  FF
BB XB-49A Flying Wing for the same reason  FF
FF Ho229 "Horten" it was recently discovered it would have had a much lower RCS than contemporary WWII fighters ××%
FF XF5-U Pancake as somehow it ressembles the Ho229 ××%
FF A-12/ SR-71 yet another exceptional aircraft, however sizeable ××%

AAC RADARS TYPES - DETECTION RANGES REFERENCE TABLE

It is thus based on "BB" bomber-sized aircrafts (multi-engined aircrafts, either bombers, airliners or transports).  Any other aircraft with an alleged lower or higher "RCS" would see a RCS-ratio applied to it.  Figher-sized aircrafts (FF) will be thus receive a ××% ratio.

Altitude AN/SPN-2 AN/SPN-4 AN/SPN-6 AN/APS20 
  FF   BB   FF   BB   FF   BB - FF - BB

Meters

Feet

nmi

Yards

nmi

Yards

nmi

Yards

nmi

Yards

nmi

Yards

nmi

Yards

nmi

Yards

nmi

Yards

0 - 61.m

0 - 200.ft

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

61.m

200.ft

=

=

0.39

800

=

=

0.39

800

=

=

0.39

800

65

131649

85

172157

305.m

1000.ft

=

=

2

4000

=

=

4

8000

=

=

4

8000

65

131649

85

172157

610.m

2000.ft

=

=

4

8000

=

=

8

16000

=

=

8

16000

65

131649

85

172157

914.m

3000.ft

=

=

6

12000

=

=

12

24000

=

=

12

24000

65

131649

85

172157

1219.m

4000.ft

=

=

8

16000

=

=

16

32000

=

=

16

32000

65

131649

85

172157

1524.m

5000.ft

=

=

10

20000

=

=

20

40000

=

=

20

40000

65

131649

85

172157

1829.m

6000.ft

=

=

12

24000

=

=

24

48000

=

=

24

48000

65

131649

85

172157

2134.m

7000.ft

=

=

14

28000

=

=

28

56000

=

=

28

56000

65

131649

85

172157

2438.m

8000.ft

=

=

16

32000

=

=

32

64000

=

=

32

64000

65

131649

85

172157

2743.m

9000.ft

=

=

18

36000

=

=

36

72000

=

=

36

72000

65

131649

85

172157

3048.m

10000.ft

=

=

20

40000

=

=

39

80000

=

=

39

80000

65

131649

85

172157

6096.m

20000.ft

=

=

39

80000

=

=

79

160000

=

=

79

160000

65

131649

85

172157

9144.m

30000.ft

=

=

59

120000

=

=

119

240000

=

=

119

240000

65

131649

85

172157

12192.m

40000.ft

=

=

79

160000

=

=

158

320000

=

=

158

320000

65

131649

85

172157

15240.m

50000.ft

=

=

99

200000

=

200,000

197

400000

=

200,000

197

400000

65

131649

85

172157

18288.m

60000.ft

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

=

=

237

480000

65

131649

85

172157

21336.m

70000.ft

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

=

=

267

540000

65

131649

85

172157

24384.m

80000.ft

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

=

=

316

640000

65

131649

85

172157

27432.m

90000.ft

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

=

=

355

720000

65

131649

85

172157

30480.m

100000.ft

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

//

=

=

395

800000

65

131649

85

172157

___________
 

 

The notion of radar in Atlantic Air Combat™ is examined in several preliminary AAC documents pertaining to various sub-chapters.  Background notes are low lighted in this table:

Aircraft Weapons (W_A) Anti-Aircraft Weapons
11.111 Aircraft Weapons Radars 11.111 Radars - AN/AWG Table/List 11.251 W_LAA - Radars Land based radars
11.111 Radars - TABLES Table/List 11.111 Radars - Cyrano Background notes 11.304 W_SAA - Radars Ship based radars
11.111 Radars - AN/APG Table/List 11.111 Radars - Basics Article (72.101 copy) More...
11.111 Radars - AN/APQ Table/List 11.111 Radars - Notes Background notes 70.102 RCS Background notes
11.111 Radars - AN/APR Table/List 11.111 Radars - Range Background notes 72.101 = =
11.111 Radars - AN/APS Table/List 11.111 Radars - SwAF Background notes Aircraft Carrier Equipment
11.111 Radars - AN/APS-06 Background notes     78.600 Radars Radars
11.111 Radars - AN/APS-20 Background notes