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2017-11-20

Background  Notes

 
     
 

THE  MESSERSCHMITT  Bf109  IN  ATLANTIC  AIR  COMBAT

Bf109E3 Emil   -   Bf109T3 Träger  -   Bf109G6 Gustav

Avia S199-G6 Messer  -   HA1112M1L Buchon

     
  The story which didn't happen ... outside Atlantic Air Combat  
     
  See also : AAC™ Variants :
 MC109E3 Gabriel
 MC109T3 Gabriel
 MC109G2 Gabriel
 MC109G5 Gabriel
 MC109G6 Gabriel
Illustrations :
 Bf109.AAC.Summary
Background pages :
 Bf109___in AAC™
 Bf109___Variants
 Bf109E3_Table
 Bf109G1_Table
 Engines_DB600 Series
Added Notes :
 Bf109_Notes1
 Bf109_Notes2
 Bf109_Notes3
 Bf109_Notes4
 
     

INTRODUCTION

If most military aircrafts used by "secondary" air forces after WWII came from the victors of this infamous war, some german designs did have a post war carreer, and among them the Messerschmitt 109.   Not only did it continue to be used operationally with historical operators (Finland, Switzerland, Yugoslavia), but it was even re-manufactured after the war.  First in Czechoslovakia where Avia produced above 500 Jumo 211F powered Bf109G6 as the Avia S-199 Messer, and then in Spain where Hispano re-opened a production line as late as the mid fifties.

Actually, it is this late Spanish production which initially triggered the inclusion of the type in in Atlantic Air Combat™.  Naturally, the carreer of the Buchon was almost over by the mid-sixties, and the extended use of Me109 derivatives by other operators within AAC™ is a fantasy aimed at satisfying WWII era aircrafts amateurs.   And we mean no more.  The Bf109 is famous, the war in which it was used was not, but will be remembered for its atrocities.  The same approach applies to other German WWII era aircrafts present in the game - the designs are of interest, not the regime which made use of them.

Bf 109 or Me 109 ?

There are often unproductive polemics about the "official" designation of this aircraft from Bayerische Flugzeugwerke which started its life under the 8-109 designation.  As outlined in an interresting article, both Bf109 and Me109 are valid and were used interchangeably at all levels within the Luftwaffe.  While Atlantic Air Combat™ will refer to it as the MC109, actually both Bf109 and Me109 designations may indifferently be used on AAC background pages.

 

POST-WAR OPERATORS

Historical

Op Role

QTY

Aircraft

Name

Engine 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967

Germany

AF

FF

~

Bf109**

~

~ 1938 1945                        

Germany

AF

FF

70

Bf109T2

Trager

DB601N 1940 1944                        

Switzerland

AF

FF

10

Bf109D1

Dora

DB601A 1939 1949                        

Switzerland

AF

FF

30

Bf109E1

Emil

DB601A 1939 1949                        

Switzerland

AF

FF

58

Bf109E3

Emil

DB601A 1944 1949                        

Switzerland

AF

FF

13

Bf109G6

Gustav

DB605A 1944 1947                        

Finland

AF

FF

59

Bf109G2

Gustav

DB605A 1943 1954                        

Finland

AF

FF

107

Bf109G6

Gustav

DB605A 1943 1954                        

Finland

AF

FR

3

Bf109G8

Gustav

DB605A 1943 1954                        

Czechoslovakia

AF

FF

21

Bf109G6

.S-  99

DB605A 1947 1957 >> 1957                    

Czechoslovakia

AF

FF

23

Bf109G12

.C-399

DB605A 1947 1957 >> 1957                    

Czechoslovakia

AF

FF

560

Bf109G6

.S-199

Ju-211F 1947 1957 >> 1957                    

Yugoslavia

AF

FF

61

Bf109E3

Emil

DB601A 1939 1945                        

Yugoslavia

AF

FF

59

Bf109G6

Gustav

DB605A 1944 1953                        

Spain

AF

FF

25

Bf109G2

HA1109J1L

HS12Z89 1947 1951                        

Spain

AF

FF

(25)

Bf109G2

HA1109K1L

HS12Z17 1951 1952                        

Spain

AF

TR

1

Bf109G2

HA1110K1L

HS12Z17 1951 >>                        

Spain

AF

FF

(1)

Bf109G2

HA1109M1L

Merlin 45 1953 >>                        

Spain

AF

FF

(25)

Bf109G2

HA1112K1L

HS12Z17 1952 >>                        

Spain

AF

FF

40

Bf109G2

HA1112K1L

HS12Z17 1952 >>                        

Spain

AF

FF

172

Bf109G2

HA1112M1L

Merlin 45 1954 1965 >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> 1965    

Spain

AF

TR

1

Bf109G2

HA1112M4L

Merlin 45 1954 1965 >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> 1965    

Spain

AF

TR

(1)

Bf109G2

HA1112M4L

Merlin 45 1954 1965 >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> 1965    

Atlantic Air Combat™

Aircraft

Name

1956 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967

Switzerland

AF

FF

50

MC109E3

Gabriel

BD601A1 1944 1949 >> >> >> >> >> >> >>

Finland

AF

FR

24

MC109T3

Gabriel

BD605B1 1944 >> >> >> >> >> >> >>

Spain

AF

FF

170

MC109G2

Gabriel

RRME450 1954 1965 >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> >> 1965

Czechoslovakia

AF

FF

560

MC109G5

Gabriel

JU-211F1 1947 1957 >> 1957 >> >> >> >> >>

Yugoslavia

AF

FF

60

MC109G6

Gabriel

BD605B1 1944 1953 >> >> >> >> >> >> >>

Finland

AF

FF

109

MC109G6

Gabriel

BD605B1 1943 1954 >> >> >> >> >> >> >>

Yugoslavia (1939 - 195+)
61 Bf109E3 - - 1939 1st  batch to the Royal Yusgoslav Air Force, probably didn't survive the war
59 Bf109G6 - - 1947 195+ 2nd batch to the Yugoslav Air Force, mixed variants, principally G6

Switzerland (1939 - 1949)
10 Bf109D1 J-301 J-310 1939 1st batch, purchased and delivered in 1939
30 Bf109E1 J-311 J-340 1939 2nd batch
50 Bf109E3 J-341 J-390 1940 1949 3rd batch, and the aircraft type operated till the end of the 1940s
13 Bf109G6 J-701 J-713 1944 1947 acquired toward the end of the war, and operated for a couple of years only
8 Bf109E3 J-392 J-399 1945 1949 assembled from spare parts after the war

Spain (1947 - 1965)
25 HA1109J1L Bf109G2 - 1947 HS12Z89 powered Bf109G2 manufactured under licence after the war
> HA1109K1L - - 1951 HS12Z17 engine change (same 25 airframes)
1 H11110K1L 1951 HS12Z17 powered trainer (two-seat)
40 HA1112K1L Bf109G2 1952 HS12Z17 powered Bf109G2 new airframes
1 HA1112M4L 1954 1965 Merlin.45 powered trainer (two-seat)
172 HA1112M1L Bf109G2 1956 1965 Merlin.45 powered Bf109G2 new airframes produced in 1956-1957

Czechoslovakia (1946 - 1957)
21 S99 - - 1946 1957 DB605 powered Bf109G6 remanufactured after the war by Avia
23 C399 - - 1946 1957 DB605 powered Bf109G12 remanufactured after the war by Avia
559 S199-G6 - - 1947 1957 Ju211F powered Bf109G6 remanufactured after the war by Avia

Finland (1943 - 1954)
30 Bf109G2 MT-201 MT-230  1943 1st batch, purchased and delivered in 1943-1944
19 Bf109G2 MT-231 MT-248 1944 2nd batch
3 Bf109G8 MT-481 MT-483 1944 reconnaissance aircrafts
80 Bf109G6 MT-401 MT-480 1944 1954 Three were high altitude Bf109G6/AS; the G6 was used operationally till 1954
27 Bf109G6 MT-484 MT-514 1944 1954 473, 474, 514 destroyed before arrival (30-3=27)
25 Bf109T3 MT-515 MT-539 1944 >> fictional transfer of a squadron worth of airframes when the type was retired

To these "historical" airframes, whose operational life will thus be artificially extended into the 1960s, a batch of  Bf109T will be added to the Finnish Air Force, allowing these to operate from the Swedish aircraft carriers.   Historically, these de-navalized aircrafts were stationed in Norway (JG77) at the start of the war, then on Heligoland (JG11) before moving again to Norway, at Lista.  So let's imagine that instead of all being phased out/shot down/scrapped in late 1944, some were transferred to Finland along with with the Bf109G6, and secretely re-engined/re-navalized in the late 1950s as Bf109T3 to offer Finnish Air Force pilots with a maritime experience...   Just a little fantasy making both the Irish Air Corp Seafire and the Finnish Air Force Bf109TTräger operating along side from the same deck.   Hopefully, the purists shall forgive.

 

Bf109 Variants in Atlantic Air Combat
Bf109E3 (read : MC109E3)

While the Swiss Air Force also operated the Bf109D1 and (briefly) a few Bf109G6, the E3 was their main variant; let's keep it that way.  Like all AAC™ Bf109, it's beefed up with a ventral and two wing pylons, and wing rails for HVAR rockets.

Bf109T3 (read : MC109T3)

Thus a cheat as outlined above : for the benefit of "performances", this variant has been re-engined with Volvo manufactured DB605B engines, re-gunned with Swiss weapons, and naturally re-navalized.  Like all AAC™ Bf109, it has a ventral and wing pylons and wing rails for HVAR rockets

Bf109G2 (read : MC109G2)

Hispano thus produced three batches of the Messerschmitt fighter, initially based on the Bf109G2 specifications, with the main one being the Merlin-45 powered variant armed with a pair of wing mounted 20mm Hispano cannons.  The type even fired in anger is some post colonial wars.   It will thus be the "G2" variant retained for AAC™ purposes.   External stores will however differ from what the Spanish Air Force used, as the weapons setup will be similar for all Bf109 variants in Atlantic Air Combat™.

Bf109G5 (read : MC109G5)

The AAC™ "G5" will stand for the S-199 remanufactured after the war by Avia.  Like all AAC™ Bf109, it has a ventral and wing pylons and wing rails for HVAR rockets

Bf109G6 (read : MC109G6)

Clearly the main variants used post war.  Some discrepences were found regarding the amount of ammunitions available for each guns.   Those mentioned in Finnish Air Force Pilot's Notes are lower than what is assumed to have been the capacity of the ammunition boxes but is consistant with observations made on aircrafts shot down (275/300, and 150/200).  Since these Pilot's Notes are post-war documents, let's assume these "lower" quantities were common practice.

Short Comparison

Aircraft ID     Bf109E3 Bf109T3 Bf109G6 S199-G6 HA1112K HA1112M
Aircraft Name     Emil Trager Gustav Messer Buchon Buchon

Length

metre     8.64 8.64 8.95 8.95 8.49 8.49

Span

metre     9.87 11.08 9.92 9.92 9.92 9.92

Engine-1 ID

piston     DB601A DB605A DB605A Ju211F HS12Z17 Merlin.45

Engine-1 Pwr

max     1100.hp 1475.hp 1475.hp 1322.hp 1300.hp 1610.hp

2× MG29/750²¹

Cowl 7.62x51   2×480.rpg ²¹2×480.rpg - - - -

2× M131/13

Cowl 13.4x84   - - º²2×250.rpg 2×300.rpg - -

1× M151/20º¹

Hub 20x82   - - º²1×130.rpg 1×200.rpg - -

2× OeFF/20²¹

Wings 20x72   2×60.rpg ²¹2×60.rpg - - - -

2× BRED/127

Wings 12.7x81   - - - - ? 2×180.rpg -

2× M151/20

Gondola 20x82   - - º²2×80.rpg 2×135.rpg - -

2× HST5/20

Gondola 20x110   - - - - - ? 2×125.rpg

Weight Empty

Historic     4189.lb 4758.lb 6167.lb     5878.lb

Weight

Empty - - 4189.lb 4758.lb 6671.lb     5878.lb

Weight

Crew - - 200.lb 200.lb 200.lb     200.lb

Ammo×2:Cowl

480rpg 7.62x51 34g 72.lb 72.lb        

Ammo×2:Cowl

250rpg 13.4x84 75g     83.lb      

Ammo×1:Hub

130rpg 20x82 183g     53.lb      

Ammo×2:Wing

60rpg 20x72 200g 53.lb 53.lb        

Ammo×2:Wing

180rpg 12.7x81 84g            

Ammo×2:Wing

125rpg 20x110 260g           143.lb

Fuel Internalº³

400L 88.1gal 7.6lb/gal 670.lb 670.lb       703.lb

Fuel Internalº³

420L 92.5gal 7.6lb/gal     703.lb     703.lb

Weight Combat

AAC     5184.lb 5753.lb 7710.lb     6924.lb

Weight Combat

Historic         7709.lb     7404.lb
Gun Gondolas¹³ 183lb/@ Empty              

Ammo×2:Gond

80gpg 20x82 183g - - 64.lb     -
        AND AND OR     AND
Ventral Pylon 1×250.kg Bomb 550.lb 550.lb 550.lb 550.lb     550.lb
OR      "         " 1×300L Fuel 550.lb 550.lb 550.lb 550.lb     550.lb
OR HVAR Rockets                  

HVAR:80mm¹²

2x8 air-to-gnd 30.lb n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 480.lb
OR

HVAR:T10

2×4   62.lb 496.lb 496.lb 496.lb     496.lb
OR

HVAR:RP3

2×3   82.lb 492.lb 492.lb 492.lb     492.lb
OR

HVAR:AR3

2×3   79.lb 474.lb 474.lb 474.lb     474.lb
OR

HVAR:AR5

2×2   141.lb 564.lb 564.lb 564.lb     564.lb
OR

HVAR:R132

2×4   50.lb 400.lb 400.lb 400.lb     n/a
OR

HVAR:R135

2×2   143.lb 572.lb 572.lb 572.lb     572.lb
OR

Heavy Rockets

                 

HVAR:WG21

2×1 AAR air-to-air 247.lb

HVAR:WG27¹¹

2×1 AGR air-to-gnd 245.lb 490.lb 490.lb 490.lb     490.lb

Weight MTOW²º

AAC     5756.lb 6325.lb 8282.lb GG GG 7496.lb

Weight MTOW

Historic     5875.lb 6303.lb 8370.lb GG GG 7404.lb

Comment on the Short Comparison Table

º¹

It seems reasonably clear that Swiss Bf109E were not equipped with a Motorkanone firing through the propeller hub.  An Oerlikon FF is added here for weight comparison purposes only - the Aircraft Data Sheet will show differently

º²

Quantities of ammunitions for the Finnish Bf109G come from a Finnish AF aircraft manual; they differ from what the litterature usually mention - shown here "as found" for comparison purposes.  The empty weight is cheated to match the published "combat weight"

º³

Fuel weight is calculated along AAC standard

¹º

Specific fuel consumption varies with sources : according to Wikipedia it's roughly 0.44 but an average calculated on data published in the Finnish Air Force Bf109 manual gives a very different reading - a figure will be adopted in the Data Sheet

¹¹

Historically, the Bf109G could be equipped with a pair of 21 cm (8 in) Wfr. Gr. 21 rockets (G-6 with BR21) aerial rocket lodged in launching tubes (total weight of the tube+rocket assembly : 247lb).  For AAC purposes, the Bf109 could be equipped with a pair of air-to-ground heavy rockets of similar weight but launched from wing pylons

¹²

The exact type of Oerlikon 80mm rocket used by the Spanish Air Force is unknown - could it be the SNORA, even if they only appeared in the 1960s and the HA1112 dates from the 1950s) - weight shown is an educated guess only

¹³

The gondola guns of the Bf109G are known to add a total weight (with ammo) of 215 kg to the aircraft

²º The last line of the table compares AAC calculated MTOW with known values, keeping discrepencies to a minimun,  notwithstanding the fantasy use of HVAR rockets, which was the purpose of the excercise.
²¹

The Bf109T is thus fictionally re-gunned with Swiss weapons

EXTERNAL WEAPONS USED IN AAC

In brief, external weapons used on the Bf109 could be described as follows:

Historical   Atlantic Air Combat™
fuselage stores : alternative loads fuselage pylon : alternative loads
250 kg  bomb 550 lb    bomb or  equivalent
50 kg  bomb 110 lb    bomb or  equivalent
300 lit.  fuel 66 gal  fuel or 33 gal  fuel
underwing stores - ± central position underwing pylons : alternative loads
112 kg  air-to-air rocket (WGr21) launcher 245 lb    WG27 air-to-surface rocket (cheat)
250 lb    bomb or  equivalent
33 gal  fuel = 260 lb  
underwing stores : outer panel underwing stores : outer panel
n/a 80 lb    HVAR air-to-surface rocket (cheat)

the ventral pylon is maintained in its role and weight carrying value

the position of the WGr21 launcher is made into a conventional pylon able to carry about everything within the same weight value

the outer wing panel will support HVAR laucher rails for up to 2×4 rockets (with a maximum total load of 572 lbs)
 
 
___________