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RADARS


  Article  

 
     
     
  AN/APS-20 AEW RADAR  
  See also : Reference Documents
 US Radars - 1943
 US Radars - WWII
Other AAC pages
 AN/APS-6
 AN/APS-20
 
     

Introduction
The S-band AN/APS-20 was the world first AEW radar, initially developed by the MIT Radiation Laboratory during WWII. Entering service in 1945, it saw service for 45 years, phasing out in only in 1991 when the Royal Air Force retired its Shackleton AEW2. In US Navy service it was succeeded by the Hazeltine AN/APS-82.

Early history
The US Navy, in 1944, under the threat of Kamikaze attack, ordered the development of a radar system that could be carried aloft in an aircraft. Which would expand the radar horizon under which the Fleet was to operate during a series of campaigns through the Philippines and northwards to Japan. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) was tasked with developing a workable system in February 1944 under Project Cadillac and a prototype system was built and flown in August on a modified Grumman TBM Avenger torpedo bomber. With tests proving successful, the system being able to detect low flying formations at a range in excess of 100 miles, the US Navy ordered production of the TBM-3W Avenger, the first AEW aircraft to enter service. TBM-3Ws fitted with the AN/APS-20 radar entered service in March 1945, with some 36-40 eventually being constructed. The TBM-3W Avenger was purely an AEW radar aircraft, as the aircraft had a crew of only a single pilot and one radar operator. All control functions were conducted on surface ships, with radar data transmitted via a data link which gave the video image and radar antenna angle to enable a tactical picture to be developed in the Combat Information Center (CIC). Following the success of Project Cadillac, Project Cadillac II was commenced in 1944, with the aim of producing a flying command center. This lead to the development of the PB-1W, a modified Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, using the same AN/APS-20 radar as the TBM-3W Avenger, but with several operators on board who could steer defending fighters towards targets via radio. The PB-1W was specifically designed to counter the Kamikaze threat, operating from land bases in support of the Fleet at sea. The AN/APS-20 radar as fitted to the TBM-3W and PB-1W became the mainstay of AEW aircraft developments following World War Two. 

Post WWII development
After WWII, the US Navy and Royal Navy adopted AEW very promptly and deployed AN/APS-20 radar equipped AD-3W, AD-4W Skyraider and AEW.1 Skyraiders on several carriers, while the US Navy and US Air Force fitted the radar to long range land based WV-1/2 and EC/RC-121C/D derivatives of the Lockheed Constellation (with dorsal mounted 'nodding' AN/APS-45 height finding radar) . While not designed specifically as an AEW aircraft, the Grumman AF-2W Guardian, when fitted with the AN/APS-20, also had a secondary AEW capability.

Operational history
These AN/APS-20 based systems represent the first generation of AEW systems and saw extensive use well into the seventies, when the US Air Force deployed its E-3A Sentry and the US Navy phased out the last of its land based AEW in favour of carrier based E-2B/C Hawkeyes. Carrier based AEW has had a colourful history with the US Navy deploying the AD-3W, AD-4W, E-IB Tracer and finally the very successful E-2B/C Hawkeyes family, while the Royal Navy transplanted its AN/APS-20s into the Gannet AEW.3 and subsequently passed these radar sets to the Royal Air Force where they equipped the long serving Shackleton AEW upon arrival of its E-3D Sentry fleet.

Versions

AN/APS-20A

1 MW peak power version, released in 1946. 

AN/APS-20B

Fitted to EA-1E Skyraider, P-2 Neptune. 

AN/APS-20C

1 MW peak power version. Essentially electrically and physically identical to the AN/APS-20A, differing mainly in a newer flux-gate compass system. Fitted to P-2 Neptune. 

AN/APS-20E

2 MW peak power version, resulting in rediation health hazard concerns.

AN/APS-20F

Unlike its early-model predecessors, the aircrafts movement was compensated for by using links with the internal Doppler navigation kit and by calculating ground speed and drift. Included IFF interogator, data link (to the ground ship) was via AN/ART-28 Bellhop. Fitted to EA-1E Skyraider and Royal Air Force, Royal Navy Gannet AEW.3 and Shackleton AEW2. 

AN/APS-20

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Platforms

Performances

  • 1946 - TBM-3W Avenger

  • 1946 - PB-1W Flying Fortress

  • 1949 - P2V-3W Neptune

  • 1949 - AD-3W Skyraider

  • 1950 - AD-4W Skyraider

  • 1953 - AD-5W Skyraider

  • 1953 - EC-121 Warning Star

  • 1959 - Gannet AEW3

  • 1972 - Shakleton AEW2

  • Detection of fighter sized aircrafts :  65 nautical miles

  • Detection of bomber sized aircrafts : 85 nautical miles

  • Detection of destroyer sized ships : 200 nautical miles

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