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2017-11-20


 

Bf109 - Additional Notes/3

 

 
 
 
1/2 FRENCH FLIGHT TEST REPORT - http://kurfurst.org/Performance_tests/109E_French_trials/french_109e_performanceT.html

CHAPTER I

REVIEW

-
1939.12.06 Aircraft arrival at the Center. Bf 109E-3 WNr. 1340
1939.12.07-12 Reassembly, equipping and identification.
1939.12.13 Undercarriage rolling test.
1939.12.14 Tanks emptying and filling with 'C' fuel of 92 octane
Intava Oil 100 Cooling mixture ethane-diol 50% by following the S.T.R.S informations by replacing original components
1939.12.15 Engine measurement on test bench.
1939.12.16 Finishing the aicraft setup - roundels painting
1939.12.18 Instruments inspection by the Center`s pilot.
1939.12.19 Equipment verified during flight.
1939.12.20 (flight interrupted due to fog)
1939.12.21 Radios tuned on ground.
1939.12.22 Engine inspection.
1939.12.22 Level flights from 2000 to 7000 (two flights)
Searching for optimal climb angle.
1939.12.23 Climbing at 8000m, Fuel consummation test flight.
Thus 7 flights, 5 hours of duration in total.
-
CHAPTER II

PERFORMANCES

The performances have been achieved in a "day combat flight" setup, this means a weight of 2540kg (centering undertermined).

Level flight and climbing conditions "match together" under the rated altitude at a 1100 HP power and 2400 rpm.(permissable power for five minutes). Above this altitude at full throttle, with propeller pitch giving 2400rpm.

A - TEST RESULTS -
1°- Climbing - Testing on 12/23/39 (The climb has been interrupted at 8.300 m. due to malfunctioning of the engine)
Z Climb Time Climb Speed RPM Manifold Pressure in mm of Hg
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
1' 16"
2' 31"
3' 50"
5' 03"
6' 20"
8' 01"
10' 02"
13' 35"
13,88 m/s.
12,83
14,71
15,14
13,16
9,44
7,36
4,17
2430 /min
"
"
"
"
2400
"
"
962 mm
953
945
943
865
771
668
574
-
2°- Level Flight Speed - Testing on 12/28/39 -
Two level flight series have been executed :
- One from 2.500 m. to 5.500 m. with radiators open due to high coolant liquid and oil temperatures.
- The second one from 5000 to 7000m, with radiators closed.

The results of tests are shown in joined graphs and in the board below:
1° serie - Radiators Open -
Altitude Level Speed RPM Manifold pressure
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
490 km/h
500
512
520
530
520
512
2400 /min
"
"
"
"
"
"
960 mm.
"
"
"
920
870
840
-
2° serie - Radiators Closed -
Altitude Level Speed RPM Manifold pressure
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
570 km/h.
570
565
560
545
2400 /min
"
"
"
"
880 mm.
850
800
750
700
-
Given the fact that the plane hasn't still done 'a base', the tests have been denuded by assuming that the antenna coefficient was equal at 0,1.  Due to that, there is an uncertainity about the results. This uncertainty is about 2 to 3%.  Thus maximum speed is 570km/h +/-15km/h.

3° - Controls - Testing on 12/23/39
The test consisted of a 50' flight (including a 5' climb to 3700 and a level flight lasting 40' at this altitude) executed in the following conditions : Manifold pressure = 840 mm  -  Rotation per minute = 2200 R.P.M.

The fuel consumption under these conditions was 230 liters (available fuel quantity = 400 liters).

In flight conditions called "economical continus power", the consumption per hour is about 300 liters,and the specific consumption is apprx. 230 gr./HP/h.

B - RESULTS CRITICISM
The results obtained in the Center during the first tests seem to match well with the German manual, with regards to the level flight speeds and the fuel consumption. Nevertheless, during the level flight testing done under 5000 meters (external temperature = +6°C on ground and -17°C at 5000 m.) to obtain a correct oil and water cooling it was required to open the radiators. However, with regards to climbs, the obtained results are clearly inferior to the performance claimed by the
German manual. Yet, four single climbs were done, in order to find out the optimal speed before the climbs done on the 12/23/39.

The table below shows the resulting difference between the claimed perormance and the obtained performance.
-
Altitude Climb Times obtained during tests Climb times in the German manual
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
1' 16"
2' 31"
3' 50"
5' 03"
6' 20"
8' 01"
10' 02"
1'
1' 54"
3'
3' 48"
4' 54"
6' 18"
-
-
(The 5% tolerance claimed in the german booklet is widely exceeded.)

The climbing was done at the Center with the radiators open up to 4000 m, then progressively closed until 8300m. It is possible that the different components (oil and cooling liquid) used by the German tests could permit climbing with closed radiators.

The climbs will be recommenced again to find out how to improve the obtained performance results.
CHAPTER III

FLYING QUALITIES - COMBAT QUALITIES

The tests can't permit yet a complete and definiate judgement on the flying qualities of the Messerchmitt 109. However, the first
flights have, in a certain way, given the pilot the possibility to appreciate the visibility, the efficiency and reaction of the controls, and alongside, the combat qualities of the tested aircraft.

It must be recalled that the Messerschmidt 109 fuselage first received a Jumo 210 with 670 HP(this version has been studied during a mission in Governmental Spain, with the Report 55/S).

The adaptation of the 1100 HP D.B. 601 was indeed achieved with a simple ballast addition to the extreme rear of the fuselage,and modifiction of the cowling.

A - VISIBILITY IN FLIGHT
a) In Climbs - Climb angle is very steep, the pilot doesn't see anything in the font.  He sees the ground by the rear.

b) In Level flight - The visibility is very good to the front and above, mediocre to the sides and to the rear, zero to the vertical and to the ground in sector reaching 60° to the front and 20° to the rear; in turns, the visibility is good.

B - STUDY OF THE CONTROLS -
a) Elevators - Elevators reaction change with speed variations are significant.  All movments in the vertical axis require a compensating manaouvre. Moreover,the aircraft seems to be longitudinally unstable when at full throttle at low speeds.

As a result of the above : (1) the ability to aim very correctly in a dive, provided of the compensating manaouvre. (2) the difficulty to succeed in a shot when nose up.

b) Ailerons - Very effective, even at low speed - strongly increasing stiffness at high speeds ( IAS > 400 km/h.)

c) Rudder - The rudder is effective, but the engine torque is very badly compensated.  Some abrupt reactions will unbalance the plane completely. The pilot is obliged, when in a climb at IAS = 230km/h (optimal climbing conditions), to hold the plane with right foot, and at the rated altitude, the reaction to the foot is quite strong to oblige the pilot to hold the plane with the ailerons also.   It is very difficult to turn on the right while in a climb.
CHAPTER IV

EASE OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

A - FILLING OF THE TANKS -
Fuel - by filling under pressure - fast.
Oil - normal filling, opening at the upper-side of the tank.
Water - Through the water-jerrycan opening, doesn't seem to necessitate special caution.

B - STARTUP -
Via inertia starter, manual startup, ignition after winding up. Simple departure, heating-up the engine on the ground is obtained in an average of 10 minutes (on ground) - Engine gauges are easy to read - judicious arrangement on the control panel.

C - MAINTENANCE AND CHECKS -
Removal of engine cowling is very fast. Locking of the two-part cowling panels by grasshoppers. Sparkplugs are perfecly accessible after removing the corresponding cowling part, they are also located on the exterior side of the cylinders groups.

The other engine parts are more difficult to access, in particular the magnetos which are not removable as long as the cowl guns are at their place.

Checks to the various circulations are easy except for some entangled pipes within the engine. Those pipes are protected by a "besano" girdle.

All removable panels and necessary doors are robust, judiciously anticipated and simple to remove.

Landing gear : appears to be robust, retraction system is simplified to maximum. Poor protection of the drum brakes, mud can enter into them in large quantities.

D - REMOVAL OF THE ENGINE -
The installation has been designed to enable rapid removal of the engine.   The pipes connections vith fittings that enable rapid removal.   Controls cables are connected with karabiner, electric cables brought together with pin connectors.

E - HANDLING AND PARKING -
Aircraft equipped with necessary devices for towing, lifting-up and ground fixing.   The first flights done at the Center didn't show any particular difficulties in operating the plane.
CHAPTER V

GENERAL CONCLUSION

In general, the first tests made at the Center concerning the Messerschmidt 109 appear to confirm the performances claimed by the Germans. In particular the maximum aircraft speed is about 570 km/h at around 5000 m.

The installation of the 1100 H.P. D.B.601 engine transformed the plane.   The thus obtained aircraft is robust, very well achieved; it has high performance; However,the engine torque is badly compensated.

On defense, when an aicraft is taken by surprise by a Messerschmidt, or a fighter trying to escape after the attack, the above study lead us to recommend a turn to the right and in a climb as the best maneuver.

1st Class Engineer BONTE Chif engineer VELLAY
Chief of Section Avions 1 Director of Centre d'Essais du Materiel Avion.

signed : BONTE signed : VELLAY

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Last updated 23 July 2006.
Work in progress.
All rights reserved.
email at : kurfurst@atw.hu
 
2/2 SWISS FLIGHT TEST REPORT  - 

The German text on the top translates :

Full-throttle, level flight speeds.
Flown with the aircraft Me 109/J-347
Engine : DB 601 Aa, serial no. 10912.

Comparison of the avarage values.


Unfortunately, little more detail is known about the test itself. However, some observations can be made regarding the results.

     
  • The engine powers are not specifically noted, but the 'Vollgas' should refer to the maximum, 5-minute Kurzleistung, or Short duration power of the DB 601Aa engine, ie. 1.35ata manifold pressure, 2400 R.P.M.
  • Comparison of the speed results with Bf 109E prototype V15a's test report show remarkable similiarity in the top speed achived at altitude with the original VDM propellor of J-347 (572 vs. 564 km/h at rated altitude), especially when taking into account that J-347 already saw considerably use. However the low level speeds diverge greatly (498 vs 464 km/h at 0m altitutude). However the low-level performance of V15a with the Höhenlader (high altitude supercharger speed, or 'F.S gear' in British terms) shows good agreement with J-347 at both high- and low altitudes.
    This would suggest that J-347`s level speed results were achived with the Höhenlader in operation, and the appropriate Bodenlader (low-altitude supercharger speeds, or 'M.S. gear' in British terms) was not used to record the results, therefore full performance of the aircraft was not reached below ca. 3500 meter altitude.
 
 

BAUBESCHREIBUNG

für das

FLUGZEUGMUSTER MESSERSCHMITT ME 109

mit

DAIMLER-BENZ-MOTOR DB 601

 
   
V. L E I S T U N G S B L Ä T T E R.

D a t e n b l a t t Me 109.

A b m e s s u n g e n:
Spannweite 9.90 m
Gesamtlänge 8.76 m
Grösste Höhe 2.45 m
Flügelfläche 16.40 m
-
G e w i c h t e  (Bem.: Bei den Gewichten ist eine Toleranz von +/- 3% vorzusehen)
Zelle 650 kg 1431.718 lb
Triebwerk 1075 kg 2367.841 lb
Ständige Ausrüstung 85 kg 187.225 lb
Zusätliche Ausrüstung 200 kg 440.529 lb
Rüstgewicht 2010 kg 4427.313 lb
Zuladung 530 kg 1167.401 lb
Fluggewicht 2540 kg 5594.714 lb
Kraftstoff 400 l 303 kg 667.401 lb 0.7575 kg/l 7.575 lb/gal
Öl 30 l 27 kg 59.471 lb
2870 kg 6321.586 lb
-
M o t o r l e i s t u n g
1) Nennleistung bei 2400 U/Min (5 min. Kurzleistung in 3700 m Höhe) 1100 PS 3700 m Höhe
Erhöhte Dauerleistung bei 2400 U/min (30 Min.) 1050 PS 4100 m Höhe
Dauerleistung 1000 PS 4500 m Höhe
- Sparsame Dauerleistung Bei 2250 U/Min. 970 PS 3700 m Höhe
2) Startleistung (zulässige Dauer 1 Min.) bei 2500 U/Min. 1175 PS 0 m Höhe
3) Bodenleistung  Kurzleistung (5 Min. Dauer) bei 2400 U/Min. 1015 PS 0 m Höhe
Erhöhte Dauerleistung (zulässige Dauer 30 Min.) bei 2300 U/Min. 950 PS 0 m Höhe
Dauerleistung bei 2200 U/Min. 860 PS 0 m Höhe
-
G e s c w i n d i g k e i t s - L e i s t u n g e n
(Bei den Geschwindigkeiten ist eine Toleranz von +/- 5 % vorzusehen. Die Leistungen sind auf Cina-Temperatur gerechnet)
Höchtsgeschwindigeit 0 m
1000 m
2000 m
3000 m
4000 m
5000 m
6000 m
7000 m
500 km/h
510 km/h
530 km/h
540 km/h
555 km/h
570 km/h
565 km/h
560 km/h
-
S t e i g z e i t e n
(Bei den Steigzeiten ist eine Toleranz von +/- 8 % vorzusehen.  Leistungen sind auf Cine-Temperatur gerechnet.)
Steigzeit auf 1000 m
2000 m
3000 m
4000 m
5000 m
6000 m
1,0 Minuten
1,9 Minuten
3,0 Minuten
3,8 Minuten
4,9 Minuten
6,3 Minuten
-
Dienstgipfelhöhe.

Die Dienstgipfelhöhe beträgt bei voller Ausrüstung 11 000 m.

Engste Kurvenradien
Im Luftkampf betragen die engsten Kurvenradien ohne
Ausschlag der Landeklappen
in 0 m Höhe 170 m.
in 6000 m Höhe 320 m.

Mit Klappenausschlag sind die engsten Kurvenradien
in 0 m Höhe 125 m.
in 6000 m Höhe 230 m.

Start- und Landestrecken
Bei dem vollen Fluggewicht von 2540 kg beträgt die Startstrecke
bis zu einer Höh von 20 m 420 m.
Die Landestrecke vom Aufsetzen bis zum Stillstand beträgt 300 m.
Die Landestrecke aus einer Höhe von 20 m bis zum Stillstand beträgt 485 m.
Die Landegeschwindigkeit beträgt 125 km/h.